From Torrent to Stream
Music in an Age of Cl The mass adoption of mobile communication devices reflects a growth rate unprecedented in the history of technologies—from a few hundred million to over four billion people in the first decade of the 21st century. This extension into data applications, multimedia, and entertainment has transformed the character of the portable phone and fashioned new material relations between and across cultural, symbolic, social-interactional, political, and economic domains. In short, these powerful handheld computing tools have extended communication capabilities and convenience, thereby articulating new socialities in the context of changing economic realities. The article will investigate the implications of these sites, whose geo-location is largely unknown by the public, for the social, cultural, and above all the financial economies of music.
Music in an Age of Cl The mass adoption of mobile communication devices reflects a growth rate unprecedented in the history of technologies—from a few hundred million to over four billion people in the first decade of the 21st century.
This extension into data applications, multimedia, and entertainment has transformed the character of the portable phone and fashioned new material relations between and across cultural, symbolic, social-interactional, political, and economic domains.
In short, these powerful handheld computing tools have extended communication capabilities and convenience, thereby articulating new socialities in the context of changing economic realities. The article will investigate the implications of these sites, whose geo-location is largely unknown by the public, for the social, cultural, and above all the financial economies of music.
The mobile phone is rapidly becoming the most important technology today for facilitating the distribution of music in the context of potentially ubiquitous digital networking capabilities.
While much music today is still stored and stockpiled as content—an album on a compact disc or, less prevalently, but resiliently, on a vinyl long-playing record , a playlist or a podcast on a hard-drive or a portable digital music device—the global ubiquity of the portable internet-enabled devices marked a shift toward prevalently service-based distribution models for music.
For many commentators, internet technologies have ushered in the possibility for economic disintermediation, whereby traditional distribution channels or intermediaries have been bypassed, allowing musicians to engage their listeners more directly and diversely.
The article assesses the reactionary and the progressive promise of disintermediation in relation to new formations of labor, characterized by increased entrepreneurial reliance on flexible and globalized networks of production and distribution. Premised on the idea that digitally mounted creative content be furnished without charge, musical production illuminates a kind of prescient vertex for the re-structuring of labor practices sustaining the material foundation of capitalism today.
While, on the one hand, new technological media proffer enhanced user-generated digital applications for better or worse, culturally speaking , on the other hand, they simultaneously bear witness to a gradual process of labor degradation. Cloud-based services thereby render hard drives obsolete, effectively delivering streamlined databanks of musical content to multiple devices, now immunized from the inconveniences of hard drive malfunctions and downloads.
In short, the practices of downloading via torrents and other means have withered and licensed music access services have become dominant. In a gesture that recapitulates the technological upheavals in the music industry of the past such as the replacement of vinyl LPs with digital CDs in the early s , early incarnations of the website encouraged users to devalue their current playlists in favor of the service: Your library.
Only this time your collection is vast: In this way, users access vast, and highly organized, playlists using their always-connected computers and ever-relocating smartphones. This kind of application was still based on a purchase-and-download model which in turn delivers revenues to music rights holders.
In October Google launched its all-in-one streaming service YouTube Red, a subscription tier for its popular audio and video service. With these technologies, Google thereby became a provider for content delivery to a mobile device in any location a rental car in another country, for example , offering users all-access virtualized playlists, and so forth, in the context of ultramobility.
Even though the relationship of a particular number of downloads to the conceptual commodity structure of an album was entirely derivative, the industry persisted in its attempt to retain its traditional selling structures and attendant reward programs. For example, the metrics employed by Pandora—a free advertisement-based streaming service for smart phones and computers used by over 35 million listeners in , 30 percent of whom connected via phone 6 —involve hundreds of elements traversing the terrain of music theory metric beats per minute, rhythmic topoi, instrumentation, formal criteria, harmonic patterns, and so on , psychology emotional valences, implied bodily comportments, and so on , and sociology genre attributions, degree of accessibility, and so on.
The website Hype Machine, for instance, a blog aggregator grounded in a numerically derived measure of popularity, emphasized the cultural-contextual determinants of taste-communities. The number of playlists produced by these differently nuanced filters is considerable. But as smart phones become increasingly personalized, the selection of data points for cloud-based computing is itself likely to become flexible—expanded, contracted, shuffled, or otherwise repurposed for a host of algorithms attuned to ever-finer gradations of service-oriented consumption.
This commentary is grounded in a particular theoretical position, which in turn implies a kind of warning or embrace of the new socialities imbricated in technological developments. In stark contrast to Benjamin, Adorno warned against the effects of the repetitive and superficially standardized music and art of the culture industry, endorsing instead concentrated absorption as a pathway to dialectics.
The idea that advances in communication technologies contribute to diminished subjectivities is taken up by the popular press as well.
In step with Nicholas Carr, Thomas Friedman argues that attention spans are disrupted as interconnections proliferate: Knopf, , p. The freelance journalist Chris Weingarten, for example, describes how the algorithmically defined harvesting mechanisms that trawl the web to identify musical trends and gauge popularity forgo quality in the name of quantity. Jaron Lanier describes the emergence of such optimization data aggregators, metablogs, etc.
A blog of blogs is more exalted than a mere blog. If you have seized a very high niche in the aggregation of human expression […] then you can become superpowerful. The same is true for the operator of a hedge fund. Rather, they may be the ones to collect the most music data. Although not all mathematical algorithms are equal some may not be based primarily on the logic of click-through rate-based search, others may be designed with nondeterministic or randomized elements, and so on , the task of revealing the grammar of their data-processing formalisms especially in light of the naturalized opacity by which they are experienced by users becomes increasingly urgent.
Here critics tend to focus on the socio-cultural fragmentation implied by the personalized use of mobile musical players. For example, the global surge in usage of mobile musical players is shown to corrode prosocial behavior by isolating individual users from the ambient environment, thereby flattening modern communication—reducing social contact to mere status-display practices, for example.
This simplicity also relates to the industrial demand for invisible artifacts, to which I will return. Here it suffices to point out that design elements thus project mobile devices such as the iPod, iPad, and iPhone as sleek and refined accessories, whose portals effortlessly simplify relations with an increasingly complex social system and informational network.
Aesthetic minimalism here paradoxically recapitulates the very flattening of social expression to mere status-display decried by du Gay and Fortunati in their criticism of mobile technologies. As if to compensate for this gentle contradiction, the ads also offered heightened private experiences unavailable to the nonuser. One early television ad, for example, featured an iPod-wearing pedestrian walking down the street in calm strides, but projecting a shadow-self dancing in musically immersed ecstasy.
This compensatory value, however, recapitulates the very echo-chamber effects, isolation, and concomitant social fragmentation denounced by Carr and, to a lesser extent, Auletta in their analysis of digital technologies. In almost Schopenhaurian motifs, the iPod silhouette ads shuttled between the perils of this twin logic; at once projecting an act of social distancing or withdrawal and proffering intoxicating surrogate metaphysics.
In both cases, commercial advertising thereby paradoxically hitches a ride on a particular strand of cultural pessimism. At a broad level, commentators like Yochai Benkler and Clay Shirky emphasize the positive effects of the social interactions facilitated by multiple communication interfaces today. The Banning of a V Where mathematical automation brings down a curse on some modes of creative practice, therefore, it holds up a promise for others. This is the flip side of the pessimistic coin advanced by Kittler, Turkle, du Gay, Fortunati, and others, which is also paradoxically invoked by various commercial branding campaigns.
Enhanced technological capabilities thus allow users to adjust the amount of contact they make with interlocutors in increasingly sophisticated ways. Synchronised Music-Sharing on Handh Examining and Refining th Katz, Katie M. For example, Katz et al. Music and tunA, which enable users to share music with people in their near vicinity. Instead of being connected to the Internet, these devices are connected via ad hoc wireless networks within mobile geographical settings.
Divisible Mobility: Michael Bull, identified here primarily with those who argue against the prosocial aspects of mobile music listening, for example, equally engages the utopian aspects of such listening. Gianluca Colombo, L. Lawler, V. Jaron Lanier argues similarly against the spatialization of locked-in ideas about how software is constituted. Articulating Tens The overarching intellectual focus on individual and social effects of nanotechnologies whether pro- or contra- , in contrast, manufactures disinterest in all-too-concealed macro-structures, which include the cyber- infrastructural assemblages that invisibly support the various patterns of usage, the institutional maintenance of the technical systems undergirding these technologies, and above all the economic determinants at stake in such support and maintenance.
In the words of David Ribes and Thomas A. Corporate investment in music streaming should be read, above all, against these infrastructural developments; as attempts to control the increasingly centralized computing grid. For many businesses, economies of scale now make it possible to outsource their storage needs and computer applications to these sites at much reduced cost.
Mobile computing on a mass scale has followed suit. To invoke a question I raised in the context of a critique of Deleuzian postmodernism: Is not the argus-eyed and micro-capillaried digital network, its algorithmic surveillance attuned to ever-finer gradations of resonance between consumer desire and niche market production, the very lifeblood of Capital today?
Essays in Social T Who Will Win? They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.
They required too much of our full attention. A good technology, according to him, functions like a tool. A tool, when properly used, disappears as a function of its use, moving to the background of our attention. In Luke Jansen, chief executive officer of Tigerspike, a media company with a specialization in mobile, for example, addressed the possibility of integrating digital chips in contact lenses and teeth. It is as if these, basically postmodern, interpretative pluralities foster determined incuriosity toward the metanarratives that undergird fragmentation of socialities into plural dimensions in the first place.
The liberatory, utopian aspects of mobile communication in our times become at most a compressed freedom; contained—in both senses—by a rigid, mandatory technological structure. Or, put differently, effortless habituation in divisible mobilities has entailed containing their emancipatory promise, bringing down a curse thereby.
Music in the Cloud, Cambridge, Polity, , p. Manifesto for the Digital Music Revolution, Boston, In the older music economy, the media of music its tangible forms—vinyl, cassette, compact disc, and so on were fused with its contents its sounding forms—songs, symphonies, and so on , which facilitated its efficient circulation as a physical commodity. In the newer economy, medium and content are increasingly delinked; the former effectively dematerialized; or, more accurately, micro-materialized, which is to say transformed from an actual tangible medium to a seemingly virtual digital format.
The virtualization of music parallels the shift toward ever-miniaturized, and therefore concealed, technologies centered around mobility. Interestingly, the MP3 format itself, developed in the s by Karlheinz Brandenburger and others at the Fraunhofer Institute in Erlangen, Germany, was encoded as a commodity form, including, for example, digitally inscribed copyright protections in its code.
For this reason, Sterne insists that the MP3, for all its invisibility, retains its thinglike character. This is an important point in the context of the emerging cloud-based music economy, to which I will return shortly.
With the mainstreaming of peer-to-peer connectivity in the early s, large-scale practices of exchange were no longer primarily governed by financial transactions. According to the International Federation of the Phonograph Industry, only one in twenty digitally downloaded musical tracks was legally purchased in Music in the Cloud, p.
Web 2. The collapse of the mass-industrial music sector thus witnessed the burgeoning of an independent, and more diverse, extra-industrial sector. For LaPlante, Bracy, Byrne, and others, the new technologies ushered in a period of unprecedented musical freedoms. Music, in this view, has shifted from a more communitarian-oriented activity the age before the technological reproducibility of sound to a more a privatized one the age of the recording industry and now back again the age of disintermediated network connectivity.
One might say this urge is part of our genetic makeup. By , the listening habits of a new generation of listeners had shifted. Illegal file-sharing rapidly decreased and online music streaming became the norm.
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East Coast rapper Logic revealed today that his third studio album will be titled Everybody . torrents or sites which themselves link to copyrighted files. Explore releases and tracks from Logic at Discogs. Shop for Vinyl, CDs and more from Logic at the Discogs Marketplace. Logic (27) – Everybody album art. Logic—who is sporting, like the rest of his entourage, is a swift, clackety torrent of words that click into place triumphantly when the rhyme lands, Logic’s last proper album, ‘s Everybody, was an ambitious enterprise.
For some, Drake is the paterfamilias, with his pan-regional pastiche pop-rap. Cole, a modern moralist reinvigorating the modes of two decades ago. Lil Wayne, now 36 years old, has come to feel like an elder, his innovations so baked into the genre as to be nigh invisible. A star since he was a teenager, he has been releasing music for two decades. But then contractual battles with his label turned it into something more — a rallying cry for artist independence, verging on the apocryphal.
Numéros en texte intégral
Thank You feat. Everybody Dies 4. The Glorious Five 5.
Watch: Logic | Def Jam
The discography of American rapper Logic consists of five studio albums, seven mixtapes and .. Retrieved March 17, ^ “Logic Announces New Album Everybody, No Longer Titled Africaryan”. Pitchfork. Retrieved March 29, And they are gushingly prolific, releasing music in a torrent (at least, in the The most effective throughline on this album isn’t actually Lil Wayne — it’s especially when he’s diving into his personal narrative: “Everybody talk. [Torrent~Mp3] Logic YSIV Album Download (H.Q) “But then you inform everybody that you have the entire Wu-Tang Clan featured on your.